Quantum Computing and how they work

Quantum computers are elegant machines,
smaller and requiring less energy than
supercomputers. An IBM Quantum processor
is a wafer not much bigger than the one
found in a laptop. And a quantum hardware
system is about the size of a car, made
up mostly of cooling systems to keep the
superconducting processor at its ultra-cold
operational temperature. A classical processor
uses bits to perform its operations. A quantum
computer uses qubits (CUE-bits) to run
multidimensional quantum algorithms.


For some problems, supercomputers aren't that super.
When scientists and engineers encounter difficult
problems, they turn to supercomputers. These are
very large classical computers, often with thousands
of classical CPU and GPU cores. However, even
supercomputers struggle to solve certain kinds
of problems. If a supercomputer gets stumped,
that's probably because the big classical machine
was asked to solve a problem with a high degree
of complexity. When classical computers fail,
it's often due to complexity. Complex problems
are problems with lots of variables interacting
in complicated ways. Modeling the behavior of
individual atoms in a molecule is a complex problem,
because of all the different electrons interacting
with one another. Sorting out the ideal routes for
a few hundred tankers in a global shipping network
is complex too.


Building a functional quantum computer requires
holding an object in a superposition state long
enough to carry out various processes on them.
Unfortunately, once a superposition meets with
materials that are part of a measured system, it
loses its in-between state in what's known as
decoherence and becomes a boring old classical bit.
Devices need to be able to shield quantum states from
decoherence, while still making them easy to read.
Different processes are tackling this challenge from
different angles, whether it's to use more robust
quantum processes or to find better ways to check for